Sugar have following purpose in our baking:

  • They add sweetness and flavor
  • They create tenderness and fineness of texture, partly by weakening the gluten structure.
  • They give crust color.
  • They act as preservative
  • they provide food for yeast.

Chemical name of sugar is sucrose. Sugar found in milk is called lactose and is less sweet then sucrose. where as sugar found in fruits or honey called fructose is much sweeter then sucrose.

One important characteristic for bakers to understand is that sugar attract and hold water.

Types Of Sugar

  1. Castor sugar – used in cakes and cookies.
  2. Icing sugar – its fine powder mixed with small amount of starch.
  3. Brown sugar – its an impure form of sugar. it contains caramel, molasses and other impurities. Used when its flavor is desired and its color will not be objectionable.


FAT have following purpose in our baking:

  • It add moistness and richness.
  • Add flavor.
  • It increase keeping quality.
  • To assist in leavening when used as creaming agent
  • Gives flakiness to puff pastry and similar products.

Bakers must consider when selecting a fat for specific use are its melting point, its softness or hardness at different temperatures and its flavor.

Types Of Fats

  1. Shortening – its white, tasteless. Consist of 100% fat.
  2. Butter – is 80%fat, 15%water and 5%milk solids. Its available salted and unsalted.butter do have is own flavor and it melts in mouth whereas shortening do not.
  3. Margarine – It is manufactured from animal and vegetable fats. its a kind of imitation of butter.
  4. Oils – Liquid Fat not often used in baking.


Eggs have following purpose in our baking:

  • It gives structure to cakes which uses high ratio of fat and sugar.
  • Add flavor.
  • It contributes to volume and texture.
  • Yolk give color to batter and when baked eggs brown easily and contribute to crust color.
  • And of course egg have it nutritional value.